Collection & Gallery of Memories
From the first impressions of Thomas Wedgwood (1771-1805) around 1800, to the well-known images of Nicéphore Niépce (1765-1833) in 1826 and Joseph Louis Daguerre (1787-1851) in 1838, photographic images play an important role in the conservation and visualization of the activities of humanity, in such a way that it's characterized as a true social document and source par excellence.
The reconstruction of collective history through images contributes to the formation of an invaluable historical record and its preservation allows us to identify people in time and learn about the customs of the societies that lived years ago.
The more we discover about the past, the more memorable connections we will make.
Tribute to the Founder
Tribute of the city of San Jerónimo Norte in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic, on the centenary of it's foundation (1958) to its founder, Ricardo Foster (1808-1865).
The first cities of the world arose about 7,500 years ago in ancient Mesopotamia, when the human being had ceased to be a gatherer and nomad to be a gatherer and sedentary.
Although the inhabitants were few, historians call them Neolithic cities or agricultural towns.
In this stage, agriculture was discovered and as a consequence man became a producer, in order to satisfy his needs efficiently, going from having resources thanks to predation, to an economy of production.
Some of the first cities in the world are Catal Huyuk in Turkey, established in 7500 BC. approximately; Uruk (since 5000 BC) located on the banks of the Euphrates River with more than 65,000 inhabitants and Ur, founded in 3800 BC. with more than 200,000 inhabitants. Babylon, founded in 2300 BC, which became the capital of a great empire and in addition to the rise of cities in Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley.
The so-called Indus Valley Civilization, existed from 3300 BC from what is now northeast Afghanistan, towards Pakistan and northwest India. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were the most important cities of this civilization and it's believed that they were built around 2600 BC becoming not only the largest cities of the Indus Valley civilization, but also one of the oldest urban centers in the world.
In San Jerónimo Norte, Ricardo Foster (1808-1865) was the one who motivated the settlement of the first Swiss families that arrived from Europe to that region of the Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic, on Sunday, August 15, 1858.
Awarding of Diplomas
Dr. Nicanor de Elía Foster (1864-c.1941) (3) during the collection of degrees at the Faculty of Law in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
AGN, DDF, INV. 59581.
The word "diploma" for graduation originated in the mid-17th century and means "double folded paper" in Greek Latin.
By definition, educational institutions award a diploma certifying the completion of a course of study and, unlike the cap and gown, the award of a diploma to a graduate began in the United States.
The tradition of awarding a diploma to graduates originated at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts and took place on September 23, 1642.
All nine graduates received "a Book of the Arts" to represent their achievements and after the ceremony, the school retired each book. It was not until 1813 that Harvard University graduates received a literal, uniform-size diploma that they were able to keep.
The original diplomas used fine sheepskin because papermaking was an arduous process a few centuries ago.
The school's president and other officials signed the diplomas, which were written entirely in Latin and came in different shapes and sizes.
Interview with the Prime Magistrate
Enrique Foster (c.1891-1969) (15) as account auditor of the Confederation of Civil Personnel of the Nation, during an interview with the first magistrate Juan Domingo Perón (1895-1974) (9) on Wednesday, October 11, 1950.
The Confederation of Civil Personnel of the Nation is a union that groups together employees from different sectors of the national, provincial or municipal public administration within the Argentine Republic.
It was born in 1948 from the need to unify public sector workers and satisfy social demands and had as it's first affiliate the former Argentine president, General Juan Domingo Perón (1895-1974) (9).
Royal Australian Air Force pilot Geoffrey Beverley Brigg (1916-1994), outside Buckingham Palace, showing the medal received for his performance in World War II (1939-1945) to Mrs Blencowe Brigg (left) and Mrs Brian Brigg of Wembley in London, England.
May 18, 1943. Australian War Memorial, UK0128.
Recognition in the form of a decoration for national merits or honors comes from antiquity; Romans, Greeks and Egyptians already granted this type of distinction, which used to consist of medallions and necklaces that the winners visibly wore on their clothes.
During World War II (1939-1945), campaign or war medals were awarded to members of the armed forces and eligible civilians, for participating in a campaign or for serving in time of war.
The Other Look
Dr. Ricardo I. Foster (1881-1959) being Minister of Public Instruction in 1936 in Rosario, Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic.
AGN, DDF, C.698. INV. 30364.
It's not surprising that today we call senior political officials in a specific field of management "ministers", since the term comes from Middle English, derived from the old French word ministre, originally in Latin minister, which means "servant. , assistant".
In ancient Rome, political offices were held by magistrates elected by the citizens for a year.
This was so not only in the five centuries of the republican system, that is, the 5 centuries before Christ, but also in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, although there were emperors at the peak of power, elections were allowed for politicians that remained. However, in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the emperor became something of an absolute monarch, largely dispensing with select politicians.
He formed his government cabinet, relying on his trusted servants, his "ministers", who dealt with the different fields of management. These ministers were often imperial freedmen, imperial officials who enjoyed the extreme confidence of the emperor, and the Roman legislation of the time calls them both ministers and ministerial.
Hence, later medieval monarchies inherit the concept of low imperial minister, that is, servant and administrator of a monarch who is part of his government cabinet and not an elected magistrate of a republican government. And hence the evolution to the modern sense of the word, to designate the individuals who direct each department into which the government of a State is divided.
Currently, a minister is a politician who heads a ministry or department (education, finance, health, state, war) that belongs to the government cabinet and works under the authority of a prime minister or president.
In some countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom, they are known as secretaries or secretaries of state, and until the beginning of the 21st century, the heads of diplomatic delegations were also called ministers.
Josefina de la Torre from Matienzo and Dr. Matías Mackinlay Zapiola, one of the couples on the team that finished second, in their encounter with Zulema Calandrelli from Fawvety and Felipe Schweitzer.
July 1939. AGN, DDF, INV. 157083.
Bridge is practiced with a French deck of 52 cards and in pairs. It's not a game of chance, but a mental one. Whoever plays and thinks better wins, which is why it's considered a challenge for the intelligence and resistance of the mind.
Although the origin is up for debate, the world has played it professionally for more than a century. It's predecessor is the Whist, the entertainment of the old English noble houses and the French court of the 18th century.
Bridge, as it's known today, was globally regulated by New York billionaire Harold Vanderbilt (1884-1970) in 1925.
The railway entrepreneur was the founder of the World Bridge Federation and organized the first world championship.
The French jurist Pierre Marie León Duguit (1859-1928) (5) and the French doctor Georges Fernand Isidor Widal (1862-1929) (7) visit the Faculty of Law and the Hospital of Clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
They are accompanied by doctors Juan Agustín García (1862-1923) (2), Enrique Bazterrica (1858-1939) (3) and Nicanor de Elía Foster (1864-c.1941) (6).
September 9, 1911. AGN, DDF, INV. 80094.
In 1911, the French jurist León Duguit (1859-1928) held a conference at the Law School of the University of Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, presenting his innovative ideas on freedom, contracts and property as a social function.
His trip can be considered as an example of the exchanges that took place between France and America at the beginning of the 20th century.
Manuel Gigena, candidate for deputy in February 1918 by radicals in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic.
AGN, DDF, C. 1897, INV. 108532.
The legislative elections of Argentina in 1918 were held on March 3 of that year with the objective of renewing 60 of the 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine Republic for the period 1918-1922. They were the first partial elections that the government of Hipólito Yrigoyen (1852-1933), of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) had to face after having definitively expelled the National Autonomist Party (PAN) from power in the presidential elections of 1916.
As for the word deputy, it's a passive participle of the old French verb députer, which meant "To represent the authority". From the beginning, this representative was appointed by a higher authority or the monarch himself, but with the rise of democratic ideas that existed in France for some decades before the Storming of the Bastille (1789), the deputies succeeded the representatives of the new sovereign, the people.
New high school graduates from the National College annexed to the National Teacher Institute.
E. Bagnati (1), C. Costa (2), J. Ferreira (3), Rector H. Lerbat (4), R. Nieto Moreno (5), A. Meluzzi (6), J. Laaz (7), R. Bastianini (8), Enrique V. Foster (9), A. Callegari (10), L. A. Alberti (11), J. Terrile (12), J.Y. Magnin (13), E. Teraferri (14), J. Dayer (15), R. Guasco (16), H. Gattini (17), A. Gordano (18), C. Berri (19), R. Panigazzi (20), C. Linistri (21).
October 29, 1910. AGN, DDF, INV. 231430.
In Spanish education from the thirteenth to the seventeenth or eighteenth centuries, the bachelor's degree was the lowest degree of university studies, which allowed to practice a profession without the need to achieve the degrees of bachelor's and doctorate. It was studied in the junior colleges of the universities.
In English-speaking countries, the degree has remained a bachelor's degree, while in most Spanish-speaking countries it has become an additional degree to secondary education.
Revolution of 1893
Leandro N. Alem (1842-1896), with his classic raw silk robe, together with his co-religionists Guillermo Leguizamón (1853-1922), Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear (1868-1942), Francisco Antonio Barroetaveña (1856-1933), Juan Posse (1839-1904), Martin Irigoyen, Joaquín Lejarza (1859-1917), Mariano Candioti (1857-1912) and Eleodoro Fierro Torino (1840-1911).
Guillermo Leguizamón (1853-1922) was the father-in-law of Celia Cecilia Foster (1889-c.1960) and a fervent supporter and friend of Leandro N. Alem (1842-1896). In 1890 he formed the Civic Union in the Province of Catamarca, and a year later he participated in the creation of the Radical Civic Union political party.
November 1891. AGN, DDF, INV. 88141.
Throughout history, there are many examples of revolutions that have occurred in different countries: North American Revolution of the mid-18th century, French Revolution of 1789, Revolutions of 1848 in Europe, Chinese Revolution of 1911 to 1949, Russian Revolution of 1917, Cuban Revolution of 1959 or Iranian Revolution of 1979, among many others.
The Radical Revolution in the Argentine Republic of 1893 was an armed insurrection led by the Radical Civic Union against the government of the National Autonomist Party personalized in the figure of President Luis Sáenz Peña (1822-1907). It was headed by Hipólito Yrigoyen (1852-1933) and Aristóbulo del Valle (1845-1896), first, between July 28 and August 25 and then continued under the leadership of Leandro N. Alem (1842-1896) between the September 7 and October 1, 1893 in the city of Rosario, Province of Santa Fe.
The consequences of the revolution were not few for both sides and the government of Luis Sáenz Peña (1822-1907) continued to weaken and fracture until his resignation a year and a half later. On the other hand, within radicalism, internal problems deepened and finally Leandro N. Alem (1842-1896), frustrated by the defeat of the revolution and internal divisions, decided to commit suicide on July 1, 1896.
The Minister of Public Instruction, Dr. Ricardo I. Foster (1881-1959), addresses those present in 1936, expectant of his speech in the city of Rosario, Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic.
AGN, DDF, INV. 30363.
Oratory was born in Sicily and developed mainly in Greece, where it was considered an instrument to achieve prestige and political power. There were professionals called logologists who were in charge of writing speeches for the courts.
The most famous of these speakers was Lysias (458-380 BC). However, Socrates (470 BC-399 BC) created a famous oratory school in Athens that had a broader and more patriotic concept of the orator's mission, that he had to be a cultured man and moved by high ethical ideals to guarantee progress of the State. In this type of oratory, Demosthenes (384 BC-322 BC) came to be considered the best in his art.
From Greece, oratory passed to the Roman Republic, where Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC-43 BC) perfected it. His speeches and oratory treatises have reached us almost complete.
A Special Banquet
Raid Rosario-Buenos Aires.
Messrs. Mario Casas, Ricardo Uranga, Guillermo Windels, Ricardo Talbot, M. Olcese, Antonio Moré, Ricardo Arejón, C. Leguizamón and Horacio Delmonte, who participated in the aviation flight, after the banquet offered by the Sportiva Rosarina Society in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic.
July 21, 1913. AGN, DDF, INV. 266462.
The word banquet, as we understand it today, comes from the French term 'banquet', which in turn would have been taken from the Italian term 'ban-chetto' (small bench) and originally referred to the benches located around a table where there were a lot of people.
Banquets have been a very ancient custom, as the Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks and Romans used to receive their guests with opulence and with a table service that stood out from the daily meal.
Herodotus (c.484-c.425 BC), the father of history, wrote 2,500 years ago about the banquets of the ancient Egyptians, and descriptions of their banquets have even been preserved in tomb wall paintings and in historical accounts.
They received their guests in the dining rooms or in the gardens of their houses where aromatic plants and palm trees refreshed the atmosphere. The hostess was in charge of choosing the menu, supervising its preparation, directing the service and presiding over the celebration with her husband, unlike the cultures of the East in which women did not participate in the festivities.
The guests arrived in palanquins and were led to a room where their hands and feet were washed. While the food was served, it was enlivened with music of lyres, harps and tambourines, as well as with young dancers, acrobats or mimes and ornaments of flower crowns.
Through time, the banquet has been an opportunity to demonstrate the generosity and wealth of the host, being an opportunity to demonstrate social position and power, as well as to flatter those who intended to impress with a position or business, celebrated very differently in all countries and cultures: from small family reunions to massive celebrations and elegant events.
The President of the Argentine Republic, Dr. Marcelo T. de Alvear (1868-1942) (2) during a visit to the Faculty of Law in the courses 1921-1922 and in the company of Dr. Celestino I. Marcó (1864-1940) (3), Minister of Justice and Education Public, Dr. Rafael Miguel Herrera Vegas (1868-1928) (1), Minister of Finance of the Argentine Republic, Dr. José Arce (1881-1968) (4), Rector of the National University of Buenos Aires and Dr. Nicanor de Elía Foster (1864-c.1941) (5), legal representative of the most important institutions of the time.
August 25, 1923. AGN, DDF, INV. 184030.
Like other countries, Argentina was integrated into the global economy during the 19th century thanks to trade openness, the free movement of capital, and the monetary stability imposed by the gold standard. Argentina prospered substantially until 1930, attracting a large volume of foreign investment.
During the 1920s it remained one of the 10 richest countries on the planet, with a wealth similar to that of France or Germany. In fact, during the 1930s, the United States, Canada, Australia, and Argentina remained among the richest countries in the world, with a per capita GDP of around $ 5,000.
Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear (1868-1942) as President of the Argentine Republic (1922-1928), led the country on the path of progress in the brilliant years of the 1920s.
His government work highlights the law that establishes the payment of salaries in pesos, national currency, the civil rights law of women, the retirement laws for primary school teachers and bank employees and the inauguration of the Post and Telegraph Palace.
He was a great promoter of culture and greatly influenced by his wife Regina Pacini (1907-1942), who was a successful lyrical soprano but abandoned her artistic career to accompany him in his militant cause.
Ceremony & Gala Dinner
Banquet and dance held in 1936 at the headquarters of the Jockey Club of Rosario in the Province of Santa Fe with the Minister of Public Instruction, Dr. Ricardo I. Foster (1881-1959) (2) together with the Municipal Mayor of the city Dr. Miguel Juan José Culaciati (1879-1970) and Mrs María Hortensia Rouillón Echesortu (1881-1960).
The great hall of the Jockey Club from Rosario during dinner constantly floated with an atmosphere of abundant and entertaining conversations.
Among the attendees is the Countess of Castellane, Florinda Fernández Anchorena (1901-1995), daughter-in-law of the renowned French nobleman, marquis and diplomat Paul Ernest Boniface de Castellane (1867-1932).
Saturday, September 19, 1936. AGN, DDF, INV. 125392.
Parade in front of the Municipal Palace
Dr. Ricardo I. Foster (1881-1959) (4) being Minister of Public Instruction, in the company of Dr. Miguel Juan José Culaciati (1879-1970) (3), Municipal Mayor of the city of Rosario, Natalio Ricardone (1), Carlos Solari (2), Lieutenant Colonel and Juan Cepeda (1869-1954) (5), Chief of the Rosario Police, witnessing in front of the Municipal Palace the parade held to celebrate Rosario Week in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic.
October 1936. AGN, DDF, INV. 125390.
Although the origin of the tradition of celebrating certain dates dates back to agricultural peoples of antiquity, it's with the emergence of national states that policies of secularization of celebrations are established, in an attempt to replace religious dates with those of civic character.
During the Middle Ages there were celebrations related to agrarian cycles, in a society where the current calendar did not exist and the land marked the life of rural and urban inhabitants, those of the brotherhoods and guilds, associations or brotherhoods, those organized by the lords and knights destined to show their power and fidelity to the Crown, and others from ancient local traditions practiced since time immemorial.
It has been calculated that, towards the 13th century, the number of holidays reached a third of the total days of the year.
There were political celebrations on the occasion of the coronation of a new monarch or the entry of a victorious king or nobleman to a city, which adorned itself and invited it's neighbors to be present at the time of arrival, which was also a form of show the faithfulness of the people to their power.
The New Lawyers
Dr. Matías Mackinlay Zapiola, on October 16, 1909.
AGN, DDF, C. 1841, INV. 98785.
Lawyers practiced their profession alone or in small groups.
It was in the United States of America at the end of the 19th century when larger groups began to meet, a trend that would quickly pass to Europe and then to other countries with a relevant development of the profession.
Visit to the President
The executives of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) and the members of the Board of Directors of the Association of Clubs visit the President of the Argentine Republic.
The President of the Argentine Republic, Dr. José María Guido (1910-1975) (2), receives the members of the Board of Directors of the Club Association, headed by Mr. Walter Fuguet ( 4), and representatives of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), who will receive them on the occasion of the official inauguration of said association.
Among the representatives of INTA is the engineer Hugo Foster (c.1910-1994) (7).
Wednesday June 5, 1963. AGN, DDF, INV. 281825.
Dr. Ricardo I. Foster (2) being rector of the National School of Commerce of Rosario, he speaks on the occasion of the conference that will be delivered by Professor Victor Orlando (1).
October 11, 1924. AGN, DDF, C. 2197, INV. 113042.
If we look for the etymological origin of this word, we must turn our attention to Latin. This noun is spelled exactly the same in that language.
We can divide it into two parts: rectus (straight or right) and the suffix -tor (the one that performs the action). Therefore, it's original meaning is "the one who directs" or, literally, "the one who makes things straight".
When we speak of the rector of a university, we can define him as the highest academic authority existing in the center, who is in charge of directing it, representing it and presiding over it's acts and bodies.
Beginnings of the Christian Community
Pro-temple Parish Commission in 1939 together with the Commission of Ladies of Las Carabelas, Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic.
With Dr. Carlos Roberto Foster (1893-1972) as president of the first Protemplo Parish Commission, the formation of the Christian community of Las Carabelas was promoted in 1932-1933.
Reflections of a Look
Mrs. Cora Díaz de Vivar de Foster Tezanos Pinto (1913-2012), on July 1, 1938.
AGN, DDF, C.3256, INV. 164649.
The first photographs were taken in the early 19th century and during the rest of the century it was developed as a practical tool.
Before, the main way to preserve an image was through portrait painting, and it was customary for the people in these traditional commissioned portraits to have thoughtful and regal expressions.
When photography was introduced, people continued the tradition of serious expressions because it was familiar to them and the ideals for capturing someone's image had not changed much. However, as photographic technology became more accessible, the smile began to become the most prevalent expression.
Residence of Mrs. & Mr. Thomas W. House
Thomas William House III (1877-1956) was the grandson of Mr. Thomas William House (1814-1880), Mayor of Houston, Texas in 1862, and a veteran of the Texas Revolution who provided financial assistance to the confederation during the American Civil War (1861-1865).
In Houston, Texas, Thomas William House III (1877-1956) handled oil leases, was the founder of River Oaks, and married Bessie Forbes (1877-1946), great-granddaughter of Susannah Foster (1784-1865).
The judges swear once again against the Constitution of 1921, for the one of 1900 before the Minister of Public Instruction, Dr. Ricardo I. Foster (1881-1959) (2), in the company of the Minister of Government of Intervention, Dr. Juan G. Solá. (3).
Rosario, Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic. October 1935.
AGN, DDF, INV. 134600.
The reform of the Constitution was not something new in the Province of Santa Fe and between 1853 and 1900 there were six reforms with an average of one every ten years. More than one historian considers that the accelerated transformations in the province during all these years required adapting the legal instruments to the new social and political scenarios.
The 1921 Constitution is recognized as one of the most progressive reforms of its time in Argentina, advanced in Latin America and attributed to social constitutionalism, such as the Mexican Constitution of 1917 and the Weimar Constitution of 1919. Previously in the Argentine Republic, it enshrined the rights of workers and those most in need and guaranteed the stability of the public employee.
It established the foundations of an avant-garde economic and labor regime: it consolidated the maximum working day and the minimum wage; it allocated a part of the tax revenues to the construction of houses for the workers.
Dr. Ricardo I. Foster (1881-1959), gave a lecture at the University of Montevideo on October 2, 1928 on the development of the city of Rosario in the Province of Santa Fe, to Argentine university students.
AGN, DDF, C. 698, INV. 117185.
The origins of the conferences should probably be sought in maieutics and university teaching, cases in which a speaker sought to focus his presentation on a certain issue, differentiating the different elements or aspects present there, and confronting different hypotheses or different approaches, etc.
Starting in the 20th century, he also designated a meeting between diplomats, as well as a meeting between specialists, as well as a presentation by an expert addressed to lay people or their colleagues. Some of these meetings clearly gained international notoriety.
Located in the department of Rancul in the province of La Pampa, Argentine Republic, this train station was inaugurated by the former Western Railway (FCO) on October 20, 1927 and is named after the engineer Franck Foster, who was president of the Western Railway (FCO) for ten years.
The origin of the railway could go back to the Egyptian civilization and the Greco-Roman era, but it was in the sixteenth century when the German miners by underground transport carried out with wagons that were supported by two series of flat woods that begin to shape the birth of the railway as such.
In the 18th century it will be when the beams are replaced by long iron ingots, at the same time that the wheel with a metal rim or frame is introduced.
After the discovery of the steam engine by James Watt (1736-1819) in 1770, the first steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick (1735-1797) on April 13, 1771 in England, whose task was to transport passengers, for the first time in the world, at a higher speed at the pace of man.
The world's first railway line was inaugurated on April 15, 1830 in England, linking the cities of Liverpool with Manchester. On this railroad, the locomotive used to carry out the transport was capable of reaching a speed of 16 km/h.
It will be with this locomotive when the foundations of steam traction begin to be laid to this day.
Reception at the Government House
Dr. Ricardo I. Foster (1881-1959) (1) in the reception room offered at the Government House of the Province of Santa Fe, Argentine Republic together with the journalist Elvira Palacios (2) and Mrs. Rodríguez, among others.
AGN, DDF, C. 112, INV. 6259.
Journalism as we understand it today was born in England in the 18th century. Before this date, there were certain forms of social communication to spread monarchical ideals, they were newsletters of French origin. It was not until 1702 that the first newspaper, the Daily Courrant, was born.
By 1715, there was already a great publishing activity, appearing a large number of publications of variable periodicity.
De Elia Foster Palace
Palace belonging to Dr. Nicanor de Elía Foster (1864-c.1941) and his wife, Carolina del Campo Lavalle (1872-c.1960), daughter of Estanislao del Campo (1834-1880).
It was located on Boulevard Oroño y Mendoza, Rosario, Province of Santa Fe, Argentina.
The palace of Dr. Nicanor de Elía Foster (1864-c.1941) had been designed at the beginning of the 20th century by the English architect Charles Evans Medhurst Thomas.
In 1943, the building passed into the hands of Federico Alabern, but the demolition work began in 1967, and shortly after the so-called Kennedy building was built.
Isabel Casas de Elía and friends during a costume party at the palace of Boulevard Oroño y Mendoza in Rosario, Santa Fe Province, Argentine Republic. Gelatin on paper. c.1925.
With the appearance of homo sapiens, clothing began, which at first was with the skins of the animals that it hunted to protect itself from the weather and other important factors. From here the types of clothing have evolved and then it has become an essential accessory for the human being.
During the Middle Ages, clothing was specific according to each social class, there were even laws where fabrics and colors were restricted to nobles.
The display of wealth through clothing became a custom in Europe in the late 13th century and was recognized as an expressive and powerful means of social distinction.
Clothing could signify one's culture, decorum, moral standards, economic status, and social power, thus becoming a powerful tool for negotiating and structuring social relationships, as well as reinforcing class differences.
The increase in the variety of dresses had a connection with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century and thanks to the great increase in the production of clothing in general, the cost of fabrics decreased.
From then on, even the most humble could buy garments of better quality and variety, later giving rise to haute couture, in which there were stylists who produced different and varied styles, inventing trends like authentic artists.
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